# 1 Lovejoy Post:
Ethical Standards in the Department of Justice Had Little Meaning to Senior DOJ Statesmen
In every level of government there is the need for teams, groups, or a few individuals that can be assigned a task. Comradery and a commitment to obtain the goal of those work groups is essential, regardless of the number of people. Depending on the importance of the task, supervisors can determine the size of the group, assign work, and schedules. The government can hire outside contractors as necessary (personal experience). What happens to the safeguards of democracy when administrative statesmen and government contractors intentionally compromise their integrity for political purposes? According to Makin (2017), corruption not only harms a nation’s prosperity but also shapes the moral behavior of its citizens. Benjamin Franklin suggests considering not only what is simply right and wrong, but the consequences of actions (Baldwin, 2012). The Department of Justice (DOJ) and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), work directly for the President. When subordinates attempt to undermine the chief executive, the administration of government is not functioning. The Russian collusion story describes that situation and could be the most egregious violation of moral leadership in the history of the country. “The integrity of the upright shall guide them: but the perverseness of transgressors shall destroy them” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Proverbs 11:3). Were there indicators that the safeguards of the Republic were being abused? It may have begun when Jeff Sessions was appointed Attorney General and immediately recused himself. Perhaps, it was the appointment of the 19-member investigation team wrought with conflicts of interest against the President. Or was it when the DOJ and FBI knowingly submitted false documentation to a court? Within the last few days, it has become known that the team destroyed government property and perhaps evidence. However, the most morally reprehensible act was for trusted law enforcement leaders to create a reason to start an investigation without justification. President Taft sought enforcement of private rights to ensure the public’s faith in the laws and the Constitution (Burns, 2018). Nearly every person involved in the Russian investigation was a lawyer, including DOJ employees. What is worth the risk of participating in a scandal that impacted the entire country? What is the cost to individual ethics and moral virtues? “Corruption has corrosive effects on democratic institutions, undermining public accountability and diverting public resources from important priorities such as health, education and infrastructure” (A Resource Guide USFCPA, 2012, Foreword). The DOJ ethical issues are so intertwined with the investigation that ethics will not be more than a footnote in the saga. “Bread of deceit is sweet to a man; but afterwards his mouth shall be filled with gravel” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Proverbs 20:17). After the President Clinton/Intern affair, the White House Ethics Office went silent. For the remainder of the Clinton Administration, mandatory ethics training became a side show and employees largely ignored the program. “What happens to a man, in a man, when an order is given in a disagreeable manner by foreman, head of department…” (Shafritz & Hyde, 2017, p. 78). Future ethics training was reduced videos. The open discussion of ethics was gone forever and the intent of ethics focused on protecting the government from lawsuits, not to benefit employees. James Madison knew the need to work with and even placate public opinion (Ruderman, 2012) Employees now feel isolated, are more recluse and wonder who to trust, because of the continuous threat of a grievance or complaint. Thus, teamwork is not cohesive and most employees do what they must to survive. The ease of filing grievances became a method of advancement in the government, which is the worst possible scenario. Likewise, there is no defense from accusations and the implied threat extends to everyone. The reason most people become Federal employees now are for the benefits. The average Federal employee’s salary, health insurance and retirement benefits can be considerably more than someone in a similar position in the private sector. “Of course, people are a mix of motives, exhibiting combinations of values over a lifetime and focusing on different motives during at various points in their career” (Shafritz & Hyde, 2017, p. 494). Many conditions stated in Chapter 42 of Shafritz and Hyde (2017) are still relevant, but many are out of date, as things have changed after thirty years. Employee satisfaction is based on a variety of things, but having a sense of individual accomplishment is one of the most important. In Lesson Six, Fischer (2020) discusses leaders and how they influence staffs. The covenantal model is certainly valid but would only work in a reasonably ideal situation. Would this model have worked in the DOJ or FBI in the past administration? No. Those agencies chose not to stay neutral. The public trust in the FBI has been compromised.
A Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. (2012, November, 14). Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice and the Enforcement Division of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. https://www.sec.gov/spotlight/fcpa/fcpa-resource-guide.pdf
Baldwin, C. E. (2012, April 9). Franklin’s Classical American Statesmanship. Perspectives on Political Science, 41(2), 67-74. https://www-tandfonlinecom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1080/10457097.2012.660446
Burns, K. J. (2018, March 12). Chief Justice as Chief Executive: Taft’s Judicial Statesmanship. Journal of Supreme Court History. https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1111/jsch.12165
Fischer, C. (2020). PADM 700, Week four, Lesson six: Leadership. Liberty University. https://learn.liberty.edu/webapps/blackboard/content/listContent.jsp?course_id=_687621 _1&content_id=_42325951_1
King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769).
Makin, S. (2017, March 1). National Corruption Breeds Personal Dishonesty. Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/national-corruption-breeds-personaldishonesty/
Ruderman, R. S. (2012, April 9). Statesmanship Reconsidered. Perspectives on Political Science, 41(2), 86-89. https://www-tandfonlinecom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1080/10457097.2012.660841
Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2017). Classics of Public Administration. (8th edition). Cengage Learning.
# 2 Collins Post:
Statesmanship Beyond the Modern State
My Topic/ Case study is on statesmanship beyond the modern state. The Concept of statesmanship has been handed down to us from ancient to modern times however, it has a paradoxical relationship with the modern state (Overeem, 2019). Statesmanship presupposes the state as it relates with the modern (constitutional, democratic, and bureaucratic) statehood however, statesmanship continues to be promoted (Overeem, 2019). Can statesmanship become more feasible again as we transfer from state government to multilevel governance? The goals is to determine which leaders should be called statesmen or not but to improve our understanding. as such. According to President Truman “a statesman is a politician who has been dead 10 or 15 years,” and another example according to Dannhauser “ A statesman is not simply a politician but an extraordinary politician who exercises wise leadership” (Overeem, 2019). Now that we have two different definitions and a clearer understanding of statesmanship we can see how it does or does not fit the state yes terminology its connected “statesmanship” and “state”. Once again statesman is more than just a politician who has been dead for some time. According to Harry a statesman is a politician who’s been dead for a while which I
mentioned earlier and Mr. major considers a statesman an actual president such as Abraham Lincoln and lastly Jeremy Bailey examines James Madison not as president but as a founder which can fall under the term statesman (Ruderman, 2012). Those three authors find statesmanship to be understood as a pedagogic or architectonic art which “shapes not only AAmerican political institutions, but also the character and way of life of their fellow citizens” (Ruderman, 2012). While trying to defer to the public sentiment and attempting to educate on it and recognizing its limited applicability in certain political aspects it could be determined that statesmanship remains and essential yet difficult/relevant ideal.
Statesmanship without Statesman that’s a good question however can’t really answer that because there are many conclusions to this case study statesmanship does not presuppose the state, the modern states makes statesmanship difficult, and when a decline in statehood there is no guarantee for statesmanship to reemerge so is statesmanship still relevant? (Bakker, 2019). I would say yes it is relevant because regardless of terminology we should just have an distinction between “being a statesman” and performing acts of statesmanship”. Since statesmanship is a form of leadership and the leaders apply psychological language to the subject of orders and obedience we will see that people they are trying to lead will obey an order if previous habit patterns are appealed to or new ones created (Hyde & Shafritz 2017, P 76).
Patrick Overeem & Femke E. Bakker (2019) Statesmanship Beyond the Modern State, Perspectives on Political Science, 48:1, 46-55, DOI: 10.1080/10457097.2016.1229563
Richard S. Ruderman (2012) Statesmanship Reconsidered, Perspectives on Political Science, 41:2, 86-89, DOI: 10.1080/10457097.2012.660841
Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2017). Classics of public administration. Australia: Wadsworth.
Forum 4: Discussion Board 2
Given the state of everything transpiring in our society today, it is more imperative now that statesmanship takes the forefront in addressing public affairs appropriately. To achieve success as a public administrator many view statesmanship as be morally excellent in skills of leadership. John 15:1-17 says, “The Lord Jesus himself led others out of his life-giving intimate relationship with the Father and his humble dependence on the Holy Spirit. He taught us to follow his rhythm of life in which he abided and bore fruit, enjoying Abba’s love and sharing that love with others.” It has been often founded in recent history that new methods of statesmanship need to be implemented to better assist society, more importantly in the judicial system. Many Americans in 2020 are calling for reforms at almost every level of government. “As we transfer from state government to multilevel governance” (Bakker, 2016).
It is hope with new methods statesmanship can resume its appropriate meaning in our society. Herbert Storing believed “modern political philosophy” is better in shaping a strong form of statesmanship. We have seen and experienced that many times in history, what worked “then” no longer works “now”. This may not be the case as it pertains to every situation, but it is true in judicial reform. Herbert Storing elaborates by adding, “which has tended to encourage statesman to forgo shaping the character of citizens and leaders and to focus instead on shaping institutions that will function regardless of citizen’s virtue” (Baldwin, 2012). Many United States government institutions were built upon systematic inequality and unfair practices of economic opportunity. “The United States economy was built on the exploitation and occupational segregation of people of color” (Systematic Inequality and Economic Opportunity – Center for American Progress, 2020).
In 2018, People of color were well represented in some of the lowest-paying jobs in America that involved labor such as agricultural, domestic, and service vocations. A few of the jobs that were highly represented were baggage porters, bell-hops (37.7%), Barbers (30.2%), Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs (27.5%), and Food Servers at (25.5%). A few factors that have contributed to people of color contributing at such a higher rate are a series of policies that were past in Congress following the Great Depression. “The new deal helped millions of families find work, increase their wages, and secure employment benefits. But lawmakers reserved most of these benefits for white workers while restricting and excluding people of color. These actions helped institutionalize and validate racial disparities in economic well-being.” (Systematic Inequality and Economic Opportunity – Center for American Progress, 2020). The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) alienated people of color by not affording them the privilege of the new benefits that were put into action, that included but not limited to, higher minimum wages, overtime pay, improved working conditions, 40- hour work week, and banned child labor. The Fair Labor Standards Act served as the necessary divider in a system that was meant to not empower people of color but furthermore trap their families in poverty by exploiting the labor. “Lawmakers amended the Fair Labor Standards Act to include some of these occupations in subsequent decades… Many agricultural workers are still denied access to overtime and minimum wage protections still till this day” (Systematic Inequality and Economic Opportunity – Center for American Progress, 2020).
The decisions made in regards to our government policies in the United States as it pertains to people of color have been unacceptable from a public administration standpoint. Statesmanship has not been exercised in the best possible manner, and it has led to many calling for a change in every level of our government. An example of exercising statesmanship can be sited in the recent actions of Canada’s Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, as he recently approved a new two-hundred and twenty-one-million-dollar program, affording entrepreneurs of color to access these funds to end systematic racism. This is meant to be a step in the right direction. Even though this is Canada’s actions and not the United States it is a great example of recognizing past systematic misuse to serve a select ethnic, financial, or political group, above the majority. “Statesmanship can roughly be defined as morally excellent leadership at the polity level.” (Bakker, 2016).
I would elaborate to say this is a perfect use of statesmanship as one of our readings for this week outlines that, “statesmanship is said to be shown at two moments in particular, namely, at the constitutional refounding’s of a polity and I times of war and crisis” (Bakker, 2016). I would say given our current state in society we are in a state of war and crisis. Similarly referenced in the book of Luke (Luke 12:51-53) when the Lord states to Peter, “…come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but rather division. For from now on in one house there will be five divided, three against two and two against three. They will be divided, father against son and son against father, nation against nation and servants against leaders…”
Bible Gateway passage: Luke 12 – English Standard Version. (2020).Retrieved from:https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+12&version=ESV
Gaultiere, B. (2020). To Lead Like Jesus Lead With Jesus – Soul Shepherding.
Retrieved from: https://www.soulshepherding.org/to-lead-like-jesus-lead-with-jesus/
Sharitz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2016). Classics of Public Administration 8th Edition.
Shibboleth Authentication Request. (2020).Retrieved from:https://www.tandfonlinecom.ezproxy.liberty.edu/doi/full/10.1080/10457097.2012.660446
Statesmanship Beyond the Modern State. (2020).Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10457097.2016.1229563
Systematic Inequality and Economic Opportunity – Center for American Progress. (2020).Retrieved from: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/reports/2019/08/07/472910/systematic-inequality-economic-opportunity/
Trudeau announces new loan program for Black entrepreneurs as Singh calls for action against systemic racism | CBC News. (2020).Retrieved from: https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau-black-entrepreneurs-1.5717297
Case Study Discussion Board Forum Instructions
Students will take part in 4 Discussion Board Forums in which you will conduct a case study of an observed study in a public administration context. The analysis will be based upon the concepts you learned and discussed in the previous module’s essay assignment, writing 750-800 words in the initial thread. For the case study, students are welcome to cite a scholarly source, but if they do, it must not be merely a theoretical/philosophical discussion. Instead, whatever source is used for the actual case study must focus on a real-world public administration situation that is being discussed and analyzed in the chosen article. Students will in turn apply concepts discussed in the previous module/week’s essay to analyze the situation, in addition to the required reading and presentations from the current module/week. Remember: it will be important to do both!
Students will post replies of 200–250 words each to 3 or more classmates’ threads. Each reply must be unique and must integrate ideas (and citations) from the required reading. Reply comments must engage the case study observations made by classmates, and must bring to light concepts from the required reading from the current module/week as well as additional reading. Thus, merely posting the same reply in 3 places is not sufficient and may be treated as a form of academic misconduct. The original thread must incorporate ideas and citations from all of the required readings and presentations for that module/week in addition research from two scholarly sources. The reply posts must also integrate ideas and citations from the required readings and presentations for the module/week, as appropriate, and at least two scholarly sources.
· 3 replies
· 200-250 words per reply
· Ideas and citations from required reading and presentations from the Module/Week, as appropriate
· Ideas and citations from two scholarly sources per reply
In this course, Discussion Board Forums play an exceptionally important role. Consider these threads and replies to be formal communications on the same level as those you would conduct with employers, clients, or colleagues in the professional, political, or academic world. As such, they must be free of grammatical errors, must be properly formatted in current APA style, and must consist of well-reasoned, contemplative, and substantive posts and replies, rather than mere ipse dixit. These threads and replies must be adequately supported by citations of the sources or support for your ideas as well as any quoted materials.
Open, courteous discussion will yield the greatest opportunities for growth in this class. Both responding to other students and responding to the instructor will count as 1 reply post. Remember that the art of communication is in many ways the lifeblood of effective political leadership. Everything you write—every paper, post, and email—creates or reinforces an impression of you. Begin to cultivate the communication skills of the statesman and stateswoman—the ability to logically and persuasively speak the truth with compassion and respect. Each response post must include new research and analysis, and must build upon the ideas communicated in the original post. Thus, they must go beyond merely restating and affirming what a classmate has said and instead bring in more depth, research and analysis. Accordingly, each response post must include citations from the required reading and presentations.
Responding to a classmate’s thread requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward. Thus, the reply is a rigorous assignment that requires you to build upon the thread to develop deeper and more thorough discussion of the ideas introduced. As such, replies that merely affirm, restate or unprofessionally quarrel with the previous thread(s) and fail to make a valuable, substantive contribution to the discussion will receive appropriate point deductions.
This course utilizes the Post-First feature in all Discussion Board Forums. This means you will only be able to read and interact with your classmates’ threads after you have submitted your thread in response to the provided prompt. For additional information on Post-First, click here for a tutorial.
File attachments are discouraged because they may slow readings. See the grading rubric for specific guidelines and grading procedures.