Values and Attitudes

Requesting 200 words response to the following post using at least three substantive peer reviewed scholarly journal articles to provide those substantive replies. 

Key Term and Why You are Interested in It

 The Key Term chosen for this discussion board is Values and Attitudes. The reason for researching this key term is for professional and personal reasons. In the near future, I would like to work for a large, global company and will need to know basic courtesies and customs of the countries in which my company works closely with. Every region or country is unique and one can easily offend or off-put someone from another culture, losing the ability to conduct business. It is increasingly more important for employees of global companies to be culturally sensitive and aware of these values and attitudes, otherwise that employee may lose their job as a result of losing business for the company, or at best, be looked over for a certain position or promotion.    

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Explanation of the Key Term

Values are inherent beliefs in a culture about what is right or what is wrong and what acceptable behavior and norms are expected of those in society (Satterlee, 2018). Stemming from values and related to values, are attitudes which are a, “manifestation of values, beliefs, feelings, and states of mind” (Satterlee, 2018, p. 47). There are differences between attitudes in different countries and can include the concept of time, approaching change, gender roles, and social status. For example, each culture has their own concept of time and how it should be managed or its influence on certain consumer choices (Satterlee, 2018). With change, some cultures view change as normal and healthy and welcome it, while others prefer to train people in their respective roles with little deviation (Satterlee, 2018). In regards to gender roles, some cultures encourage and may expect women to work outside the home, while others do not (Satterlee, 2018). Lastly, social status includes whether or not a culture believes in set social classes and if it is acceptable for people to move up or down those classes (Satterlee, 2018).     

Major Article Summary

 The article chosen for summary is a study comparing similarities and differences between Georgian and Macau consumers in regards to how their time orientation affects their advertising attitudes (Kaynak et al., 2013). Both of these cultures, while both technically Asian, have different attitudes in regards to the concept of time and time orientation has been found to be very influential in consumer choices (Kaynak et al., 2013).  

            The article briefly views and summarizes the research previously done in literature on time orientation and various cultural frameworks, such as Hall’s monochronic and polychronic cultures, and high and low context cultures (Kaynak et al., 2013). The article states that the motivation for the study comes from a study done in 2005 by Rojas-Mendez and Davies, which studied advertising avoidance behavior with participants from Britain and Chile (Kaynak et al., 2013). The researchers of the present study chose Georgia and Macau because of their time orientation differences, as Georgia has close cultural proximity to Eastern Europe and Macau is close in culture to Hong Kong (Kaynak et al., 2013).  

The researchers formed their conceptual model on the fact that culture influences a person’s concept of time, which then leads to attitudes towards advertising, which then leads to advertising avoidance or acceptance (Kaynak et al., 2013). For example, less educated individuals have a more present time orientation and are more traditionally-minded which results in the belief that creating a better future and advertising in general are useless, which then results in a more advertising adverse view (Kaynak et al., 2013). However, more educated individuals view time with a future orientation and seek to improve their present and future, therefore they are more accepting of advertising, believing it to be worthwhile because of its future benefits (Kaynak et al., 2013). As a result, the researchers formed the hypotheses that past time oriented consumers will demonstrate advertising avoidance and that present and future time oriented consumers will demonstrate advertising acceptance (Kaynak et al., 2013). Subsequently, these attitudes will then influence whether or not the individual utilizes advertising. Additionally, the study was primarily conducted through research on past literature as well as through questionnaires sent to individuals representing the two countries (Kaynak et al., 2013).

The study’s findings concluded that those from Macau were more future-oriented in their concept of time and so were more accepting of advertising and its utilization, whereas those from Georgia tended to be more past-oriented in their concept of time and so were less accepting of advertising and its utilization (Kaynak et al., 2013).            


            The article that I have cited and summarized specifically falls in line with the cultural attitude towards the concept of time, or time orientation. The article studies two different cultures and their view of time which then influences their attitudes towards advertising. With time management, some cultures view advertisements as positive and worthwhile because it adds to their future benefits (Kaynak et al., 2013). Other cultures view advertisements as a waste of time because it does not add to their present value (Kaynak et al., 2013). It was found that Georgia values are more polychronic in its time orientation and so individuals are more traditional and follow the belief that events should happen naturally and in its own time (Kaynak et al., 2013). Macau values, however, are more monochronic in its time orientation and so individuals are more future-oriented and view time as important and that it should be used as efficiently as possible (Kaynak et al., 2013). Such information is useful to a global company who wishes to set a marketing strategy in place and work with associates of the host culture, specifically in regards to advertising, and needs more information on a country’s attitudes towards time.

            The work that I cited relates to the other works that I researched, in that they all fall under values and attitudes within business. One article that I researched, compares individuals from several different countries and how their cultural values and attitudes towards relational favoritism amongst managers is viewed. Another article I researched, sought to better understand the specific values and attitudes that can influence international marketing models and research and what makes them effective or not. A third article I researched, studied how societies transmit cultural values and attitudes at a micro level, for example through imitation, and at a macro level, like through institutions. A fourth article, analyzed the corporate values of a company that originated in Denmark and its attempt to bring those values over into their company in Bangalore, India and how those values were interpreted by the employees there. Finally, I chose to cite the article that I did because it specified an area under values and attitudes, which was time orientation, and how it related to advertising and marketing.      

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