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A.) Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is based off of an employee’s motivations of what they expect from the job, their desire to succeed, and whether or not they feel valued or not (Baack, et al., 2014). Furthermore, it focuses on the motivation to achieve a goal .Adam’s equity theory centers around the equality that one perceives. It is helpful to know what the employee wants or expects from their job. Helping them with goals will allow them to achieve them. Goals clarify performance expectations and provide a basis for self-management. Locke’s goal setting theory focuses on the aim of a goal and the action to achieve it. Adam’s equity theory centers around the equality one perceives.Locke believes if an employee and a manager work together to establish goals the employee is more likely to understand the goal and complete it. It  is both realistic and in most cases true.  Vroom’s theory determines the willingness of a person to complete a goal using expectancy, instrumentality and valence.The most cohesive of the theories would be Adams theory to be incorporated into Vroom’s theory once the goal is accomplished.




B. Locke’s theory focuses on setting achievable goals that are well articulated to staff.  .  “Goals clarify performance expectations, establish a frame of reference for feedback, and provide a basis for self-management.  In these ways,  Locke believed that goal setting can enhance work performance and job satisfaction.”  (Baack, Reilly, & Minnick, 2014)  Vroom’s explains that Motivation is equal to Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance (M=ExIxV)  If an employee believes that working hard will give the desired result, successful performance will result in reward, and the reward has value to the employee, then the employee will be motivated to work harder. By recognizing Locke’s theory that performance expectations are established one can successfully motivate an employee.  In other terms, if an employee is motivated to work hard it can then be divided by the goal that was set and their employee’s belief that they have accomplished the goal, so that the employee can earn valence. 


Adam’s theory can be discussed in much the same way.  Adam’s theory basically provides the employee a ratio mechanism for weighing their work against the work of others, in order to receive a reward.  If the employee work is as good as the comparison and they receive the same reward then equilibrium is established and all is good.  If the employee makes a comparison to others and feels they are doing better than the rest, the employee wants more reward or will put in less input, ie work.  If the employee makes a comparison to others and feels they are doing less, then they will try to flee as to not look bad, or try to cause the other employee to do less in order to compare to them.  A good leader will capitalize on this theory and utilized it with expectancy in order to better motivate their work force.  The leader does not want input to go down so instead he/she will try other ways to reward positive behavior in order to continue motivating the employees.  This may be monetarily or could be through the use of vacation days, tokens and gifts, and other things the employee may value.  




A. The five functions of management are similar to the five stages of control discussed in the “Making it all work” video. Both theories can be used in your daily life to help stay organized and on task. The most noticeable parallel between the “Making It All Work” video and the five functions of management that stood out most to me was regarding categorizing and prioritizing tasks.  I have to prioritizes task at work every day and often I get something thrown at me half way through which leads me to having to re – organize my whole day to fit in what is urgent.  For both theories the first concept is a faction of planning and the second is getting organized and clarifying any outstanding items. The third concept is a little different between the two theories; staffing and organizing. Although they are not very similar, they both require research and gathering of information. Then there are the four concepts which are not similar. This includes leading and reflections.  This the largest difference between the two theories.  Finally there is controlling and engaging. These are similar as they both a line the other steps so you can have a smooth day where you can achieve the tasks at hand. 




B. The five functions of management and the concepts in the video parallel because they are both ways of organizing to work for a common goal or dream. The five functions of management are planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. (Baack, Reilly, & Minnick, 2014) The concepts in the video talk about principles and techniques achieve success. The video is about taking control of commitments and perspectives and knowing how to map out goals. The first step is control by capturing or making a journal, clarifying, organizing, reflecting, and engaging. (Allen, 2009) Once this is done it is possible to make it all work together in management planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. 

The five functions of management can help me in my personal life with goal setting and achieving those goals. When I have a plan of what I want to accomplish and then organize how to accomplish my goal it will lead to motivation. Leadership is important in my personal life when it comes to parenting. Staffing for my job is part of what I do to be able to make sure that things get done when I am not there and controlling all of the aspects of life on a personal and professional level are important. 

The concepts presented make me a better leader by showing a great way of organizing and prioritizing things. This must be done on a daily basis to accomplish anything. It also brings on motivation when you are able to lead well and have it recognized. If there is a set or common goal while leading and planning on how to process that is key to make any organization successful.  




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