Econ Growth Hist Persp

SHOW YOUR WORK IN FULL AND LABEL YOUR GRAPHS CAREFULLY

1. Trade and Growth (20 pts)

a. It is often said that trade acts like an increase in productivity, because it allows countries to produce and consume more. How is this possible? Explain in 4 lines. Consider the table below listing the cost of production for two countries, Brazil and China:

China Brazil Electronics (1 pound)

$5 $12

Soybeans (1 pound)

$2.5 $4

b. What is the opportunity cost (in soybeans) of producing one one pound of electronics in China? What is the opportunity cost of one pound of electronics in Brazil? c. In which sector should each country specialize? And how should they trade? d. List and explain 2 reasons why the conclusion in (c) is not always valid. That is, explain 2 reasons why the theory of comparative advantage would not always determine the direction of trade?

2. Openness in the Solow model (20 pts) a. For open economies, do rich countries grow faster than poorer countries? Why or Why not? Explain in 5 lines. b. According to the Solow model, what is the relationship between a country’s saving rate and its steady-state level of output per worker? Explain in 5 lines and with the aid of a graph. c. If the country is open, would the country’s saving rate matter for capital per worker, and output per work? Explain in 5 lines and with the aid of a graph. d. In the real world, is mobility of factors of production large enough to explain the relationship between openness and growth? Explain in 3 lines, particularly citing the relationship between domestic saving and investment.

3. Globalization (20 pts) a. In one paragraph, and with the aid of a graph, describe the pattern of globalization between 1870 and the present day. Ensure you discuss the different periods of globalization. b. Describe three important differences between the waves of globalization, in terms of flows in factors of production and the source/destination of those factors? c. List and explain 3 reasons for the rise of globalization? Describe each reason in brief detail. d. List 4 reasons why some might to opposed to rising globalization. Discuss each reason and provide counter-arguments.

4. Technology and Efficiency (20 pts)

a. What was Henry Ford’s major innovation to the technology of automaking? Explain in 5 lines. b. Explain 2 impacts of Henry Ford’s technological innovation on quantity, price, wages, and quality, in the automobile sector. c. What changes did Henry Ford implement in his factories in order to make the automobile production process more efficient? Describe at least 2 changes and how they impacted efficiency. d. Compare and Contrast the effects of Henry Ford’s technological innovations with the effects of the Green Revolution. Make sure you explain what is understood by the Green Revolution, and highlight key similarities and differences.

5. Technology and Growth (20 pts)

Consider the two-country technology transfer model, with a leader and a follower:

a. Suppose a country is a follower, what are the temporary and longer term impacts of increased research spending that remains below that of the leader? Explain with the aid of a graph. b. Suppose a country is a leader, what are the temporary and longer term impacts of increased research spending? Explain with the aid of a graph. c. What do your answers imply for the possibilities of a follower country catching up with a leader? Is leapfrogging possible? Explain using the examples of Japan and the United States. d. Give 2 examples of follower countries whose growth performance mirror the predictions from part (a), and describe why they confirm the predictions. e. Why is it difficult for some countries to catch-up by imitation? Explain in one paragraph.

6. Technology Creation and Patents (20 pts)

a. Briefly describe how technology is produced, and explain why a free market will under-produce new technologies. b. What are two strategies that economies can adopt to overcome the problem of underproduction of technologies in a competitive market? Explain why these strategies work and give one real-world example each. c. List and describe two reasons why patents might actually discourage innovation and the production of new technologies, and provide one instance of each in the real world. d. List and explain 4 reasons why there has been a productivity slowdown even when we have experienced rapid technological changes over the past 40 years.

7. Structural Change (20 pts)

Suppose technologies in the computer sector is growing more rapidly than in the rest of the economy and answer the following questions:

a. How does the differential technological progress impact the price of computers relative to the price of other goods and services? Make sure you state your assumptions. b. Assuming demand for all goods do not change, how would differential technological progress impact the quantity of computers relative to other goods and services? c. How does differential technological progress impact the share of expenditure devoted to the production of computers relative to other goods and services? Explain in one paragraph and once again state your assumptions.

7. Efficiency (20 pts)

a. What is inefficiency? Give 3 examples of inefficiencies in the real world, and explain why economists believe that inefficiencies are important for differences in incomes across countries.. b. List 4 reasons why inefficiencies might arise in an economy. Provide and explain a concrete real-word example of each reason for inefficiency. c. Using a simple graph, discuss the implications of misallocation across sectors on relative wages. d. List 4 reasons for misallocation across space,sectors, people, or firms. e. Describe 2 types of real world misallocation of factors of production. You are free to focus on labour or capital misallocation.

8. Government (20 pts)

a. Using a real world example, describe why the form of governance in a country is clearly important for economic performance. b. In contrast to your previous answer, provide and describe one real world example showing that the form of government might not patter for economic performance. c. Describe three reasons why the government should intervene for efficiency reasons. d. List four reasons rule of law encourages investments and productivity. e. Describe 2 of the reasons in (c) above in detail, 5 lines each.

9. Government Performance (20 pts)

a. Governments sometimes take actions that are harmful to growth in pursuit of other goals. Describe 2 examples of these other goals the government could be pursuing in 5 lines each. b. Some have claimed that corruption “greases the wheels of growth.” What does this mean? List and describe 3 arguments in favour of the claim.

c. List and describe 3 reasons why corruption is bad for growth. d. Overall, what is the relationship between corruption and growth across countries?

10. Efficiency vs. Technology (20 pts)

We want to evaluate the importance of technology relative to efficiency for Ghana’s relative productivity gap when compared to, the technology leader, the U.S. We use the decomposition below:

(Ai/Aus)= (Ti/Tus) X (Ei/Eus)

a. What information would you need to compute the relative efficiency gap? b. Given a relative productivity gap of .5 and technology growth of 1% a year in the U.S., what would be the relative technology gap if Ghana is 20 years behind the U.S.? c. What is the relative efficiency gap? How does the gap change if Ghana was 40 years behind the U.S.? d. From the above exercise, assess the importance of technology relative to efficiency in explaining Ghana’s productivity gap with the U.S.

11. Human Capital

a. How has human health changed over the past 300 years? Which countries have seen the greatest increases in health? Is height a good measure of health? Why? b. Discuss two reasons why improved health increases output per worker. Africa has seen an AIDS epidemic decimate a significant proportion of its working population, explain how the epidemic would decrease income per capita. c. Graphically describe how exogenous increases in health lead to an increase in output per worker? Illustrate and explain the health multiplier. d. There are two views on the positive relationship between income and health: one view emphasizes that the poor disease environment lowers incomes, and the second view emphasizes the fact that low incomes are responsible for poor health conditions. Discuss these views with the aid of graphs. e. Which of the two views above do you think is more plausible in the modern world? Justify your answer.

Forum Responses

1

Hello class! I can’t believe it is week eight already! I have really enjoyed this class and I learned a lot. My favorite part of the course was learning about the threats and hazards that my specific area has. It was really cool to review the Emergency Operations Plan for my county and try to figure out what could be improved. I think it would be a good idea for every person to review what hazards they face in their town. Knowing that information will allow you to be able to prepare properly. That information could save your life! I doubt that many people in my area even know that they are in the pathway of a two nuclear power plants. If a disaster caused one of them to blow up, most people would not be prepared or know what to do!

What I learned in this class will definitely help me out in the future. The information we learned about could potentially be life saving one day! It made me think about how I have prepared for emergency situations and I talked it over with my family. We discussed escape plans in case of a fire and where we would go if we had to evacuate the city. Like I said in a previous post, after taking Intro to Disaster Management, I went on Amazon and bought a three day survival pack with food, water, medical kit, and other miscellaneous supplies. I learned how important it is to be prepared!

2

Well, I have enjoyed sharing and learning with everyone the past eight weeks. What I feel I have enjoyed learning the most was about threats and hazards because it really made me look at the little town I lie in and our surrounding service area. I knew how vulnerable Danforth was when it came to things such as the rail line literally splitting the town in two along with the river. But until this class, I never realized just how big of a problem it really is. Also, as for wildfires how limited some of the access is to areas that might need to be evacuated. Narrow dirt roads with one way in and one way out. This has also enlightened me as to how poor our town emergency plan really is and how little our Emergency Manager really does. I also enjoyed how this class expanded on the introduction to Emergency Management.

What I have learned in this class will help me with preplanning when I look at the area and what hazards there are and how to overcome the hazards with mitigation and what resources might be needed. I also feel that this class will help me in my next course Emergency and Disaster Incident Command. One last thing that this course will help me with is possibly becoming the next Emergency Manager for the town. I wish everyone the best of luck on the final and in your next class. Thank you for sharing and helping me learn these past weeks.

Health Claim Assignment

The contribution of Health Claims in Possibility Bias among Unhealthy Foods

Introduction

Kaur, Heike, and Rayner define health claim as “a statement that claims something about one’s wellness” (23). The food information found on the cover of food packet constituting of the front of packet labels and wellness claims could inform the consumer on the wellness value of the food before its purchase and consumption. They also depict that “the appearances of the claim tend to positively bias the buyer or consumer’s perception about the product” (36). The notion avails when compared to other products of the same category with no such information even amid the evidence in their nutrient profile.

Health Claims

The foods embracing health claims depict the marginal healthy status as compared to other products lacking the claim. Most of the claims exist on products categorized as unhealthy with the frequency in which the ailments associated with such meals fails to provide the exact global burden associated with such ailments. For instance, Volkova and Mhurchu state that the “Disability Adjusted Years of Life Lost appear least in the numerous health claims” (87). It is, therefore, crystal clear that such claims avail the partial positive nutritional information only to cater to the producer’s gains. The study on the standard and quality status claims seems disadvantaged than for nutritional statement. Outcomes of researches assessing the unhealthy food items, one identified availed evidence of positive assessments emerging from the average level health claims while others identified greater state claim on the unhealthy items resulted to the raised perception of wellness and voluntary payment as well as combined outcomes throughout the different result variables. With no exception, researches have verified that some claims create positivity bias for unhealthy meals. Kaura, Heike, and Rayne argue that “Limited studies examining consumers response to products considering both models of the nutritional data requires an embrace of FoPL-based information against the health claims” (65). The progressing study, therefore, explores the cooperation of the two models of nutritional data. Previously, the studies availed the positivity bias through three-dimensional operational dimensions of perceived wellness, global assessment and volunteering to purchase.

Methods: The study in progress associate to the complex research project which experimented with the Australian consumer’s perception towards the prepared or take-away meals. (Triad: ACTRN1266000626460, Consider

https://www.anzctr.org.au/trial/registration/trialreview.aspx?id=370675[62] to access surplus information required on the global variable submitted to scrutiny, manipulation, and evaluation). The Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee issued the study team with an ethics permit (approval code: RDHS-11-15, date: 15/01/ 2015). Research model and the different factors suitable to the progressing synthesis are in progress:

Participation

The study invited Australian population both children and adults from the age of 10 years and above through the online national survey under the umbrella of an ISO approved web platform provider titles Pure Profile. The total number of participants within the broader project was 2058 with recent research attracting the total of 1984 participants. Kaura, Heika, and Rayner suggest the need for “ formulation of the study quotas base on age, social, economic status (SES) and gender for equity and proper representation of the understudied populations” (45). As a result, the number of study population comprised of 23% toddlers with other 48% comprising of the population form Low SES surrounding.

Results/Recommendation and Conclusion

The outcomes from the pooled synthesis (with information from the general food types) undergo the initial reporting, with an explanation of the primary effects and designed comparatives (which shows the fundamental and direction of the stated effects). Progressively, there was an analysis of the food type to reveal the varying effects depending on the category of food. During the reporting of the outcomes, a positivity bias seemed to occur in the case where the FoPL or wellness claim resulted to more positive rankings as compared with the control state on any of the three result measures of the natural wellness, global assessments and the volunteering towards buying a particular food. It is in concurrence with Volkova and Mhurchu that other studies with “different doses of exposure and behavioral studies would help identify the impact of the labeling scheme and the influencing power of the health claim respectively” (65). Conclusively, the study outcomes show that decreasing FoPLs are likely to result in more passive assessments of delicate items compared to the absence of FoPL.

Works Cited

Kaur A., Heike S., Rayner M. Do health and nutrition claims meet consumers’ health needs? Agro Food Ind. Hi-Tech. 2016; 27:22–24

. Volkova E., Mhurchu C.N. The Influence of nutrition labeling and point-of-purchase information on food behaviors. Curr. Obes. Rep. 2015; 4:19–29. doi: 10.1007/s13679-014-0135-6. [PubMed] [CrossRef]

SCI 1015 – Introduction to life science – health claim

Health Claim Assignment #1

Critique your Health Claim and Think about Research

Part 1:

Now that we have all found health claims that we are going to focus on for the rest of the term, we need to critique the experiments done to see if we think that the health claim is credible.

You will write a short paragraph in which you point out parts of the experiment that you would change or where you think the scientists could have improved upon their experiment. You can also include areas of further research for the researchers as well.

Part 2:

Assignment 3 is going to require you to do some independent research. I would like you to list 3-4 keywords that you want to research about your health claim using search engines (both Google and database searches).

Reflection Journal

Read the most recent progress report on Healthy People 2020: Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators: Progress Update. Pick a leading health topic and indicator, and note the change from the baseline measurement to the most recent measurement. What were the measures? Was there progress made or did measures worsen? What do you think might have contributed to either the improvement or the worsening of the indicators?

Next, find a public health program that targeted one of the leading health topics. This program could be local, state, or national. Describe the program and discuss public health theories or principles that were used in the program’s promotion.

Note: In this journal task, be sure to connect your own experience to what is being asked of you in the particular journal prompt. Reflect on each question and support your answers using specific details and relevant examples. In reflecting on the public health theories or principles that you have explored, describe how you have applied (or will apply) what you have learned.