Week 2

Question 1 . see attached 

Question 2 . Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper that identifies the effects that people have on the hydrological cycle and the consequences of these effects. In the paper, include the following: 

  • Describe the water cycle, including sources of usable freshwater and renewal times for rivers, lakes, and ground water.
  • Explain how wetland destruction and creation of impervious surfaces through urban development affect the water cycle and contribute to flooding.
  • Explain some pros and cons to using levees for flood control and whether it is in the best interest of communities to rely of levees to prevent flooding.
  • Explain how dams influence the hydrologic cycle and whether they are viable option for long-term flood control, water supplies, or power generation.
  • Explain three issues associated with irrigation, including whether current rates of aquifer use are sustainable. 

Include at least three references in addition to the text, formatted consistent with APA guidelines.

Critical thinking and ethics paper

Bozzi 1

Bozzi 2

Bozzi 3

Martha Bozzi

Professor Sarah Jacob

PHI 2604 Critical Thinking Ethics

5 December 2018

Environmental Degradation In The Everglades

The Everglades National Park is a very important natural resource in the United States and it has often attracted attention as the most threatened park in the nation. The park is quite significant since it facilitates the protection of the original Everglades in the state of Florida. In contemporary society, environmental issues continue to plague natural features leading to their depletion or extinction. This paper seeks to provide a framework to understand about the environmental factors that are affecting the Everglades touching on the impact of development, nutrient pollution, invasive species and the rise in sea level on the state of the Everglades. The paper will show that as the 20th century progressed, early conservationists initiated a dredging project in Everglades with the notion that this was a progressive and smart strategy. It will also explore the ecological issues the Everglades has been facing with sustaining fauna and flora life in the region due to the contamination of the environment with farm chemicals. Additionally, it will consider the threat of invasive species that affect the Everglades (Evergladesfoundation.org). Finally, the paper will reflect on the impact of the rising of sea level due to changes in climate and how this affects the natural and developed areas of the Everglades (Duxbury et al 321). Conclusively, these issues are detrimental to the Everglade’s ecosystem and signify the importance of protecting the region from further environmental degradation by initiating eco-friendly strategies and policies.

Works Cited

Duxbury, Jane, and Sarah Dickinson. “Principles for Sustainable Governance of the Coastal Zone: In the Context of Coastal Disasters.” Ecological Economics, vol. 63, no. 2-3, 2007, pp. 319–330., doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.01.016.

“Environmental Factors.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 28 July 2015, www.nps.gov/ever/learn/nature/environmentalfactors.htm.

Rinkesh. “Causes and Effects of Environmental Degradation.” Conserve Energy Future, 25 Dec. 2016, www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-environmental-degradation.php.

“Threats to the Ecosystem.” Threats to the Ecosystem – Everglades Foundation, www.evergladesfoundation.org/the-everglades/threats-to-the-ecosystem/.

Research Paper assistance

HLTH 505

Research Paper Instructions

The goal of this project is to evaluate a current environmental health issue, discuss the control and/or mitigation measures currently employed, and recommend methods to improve public health policy or practice for that issue. This required research paper project is a 15-page (approximately 4,500 words) document that must be double-spaced. Each student must choose a different topic. Therefore, before you submit your topic, look over your classmates’ subrmissions to be sure it has not been selected. It is first-come, first-served on topic selection.

Your paper must be well documented using current AMA format. You are required to use at least 10 professional, peer-reviewed, scholarly sourcesin the reference page of your paper. Avoid using newspapers, lay magazines, and fact sheets. Articles from non-professional sources will not earn credit. A Medline search is a great way to locate acceptable information. The American Journal of Public Health, New England Journal of Medicine, The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, and similar publications are excellent sources. Start early to allow adequate time to find appropriate materials. You must support your opinions with data from the scientific literature. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and will result in automatic failure of the course.

The paper must include the following:

1. Title page with title of paper, your name/ID, date, and course/section (HLTH 505.xx). This page does not count toward the 15-page length requirement.

2. Abstract – Provide a short summary of the content of the paper (less than 100 words).

3. Introduction – Describe the nature and scope of problem/issue.

4. Background – Include a review of past policies and practices, both successful and unsuccessful.

5. Current research efforts – Discuss what potential future develoments are being researched. Remember that the project is to be about a current issue using recent research. If nothing has been published in recent years, it may not be as relevant as it may appear on the surface.

6. Discussions – This is the heart of the paper. Thoroughly evaluate the material you have researched. Discuss the pros and cons of various approaches. Analyze the available statistical measures provided by the researchers. Reveal the shortcomings and highlight the merits of the literature.

7. Recommendations – This is where your opinions are given. Opinions must be guided by logic and an understanding of the science gained from your research, be void of emotional language, and be in agreement with biblical truth. A scientifically valid opinion must not violate Scripture or biblical morality.

8. References – Full bibliography of sources used. This page does not count toward the 15-page length requirement.

The reference page must have a numbered list of sources according to the order of the first citation in the paper. That assigned number is then used as a superscript to cite the source in the body of the paper. The general format to list a journal and a book respectively in a references section would be as follows:

1. Arya SC, Agarwal N. Yellow Fever Vaccination Centers: Concurrent Vaccinations and Updates on Mosquito Biology. Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases. 2012; 10: 257-258.

2. Dasgupta A. Prescription or poison: the benefits and dangers of herbal remedies. Alameda, CA: Hunter House Inc; 2010.

Your paper will consist of 3 parts: the topic submission, a working bibliography of at least 10 sources, and the final paper.

Submit your topic by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 2.

Submit your working bibliography by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 4.

Submit your final paper by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday of Module/Week 8 via Safe Assign.

Page 2 of 2

T. Wilkerson HLTH 505

Wk 4 Assignment

REFERENCES

1. Mukherjee, P.K., Bahadur, S., Harwansh, R.K. et al. Paradigm shift in natural product research: traditional medicine inspired approaches. Phytochem Rev (2017) 16: 803. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s11101-016-9489-6. Accessed on 18 Nov 2018.

2. Ben-Arye, E., Mahajna, J., Aly, R. et al. Exploring an herbal “wonder cure” for cancer: a multidisciplinary approach. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol (2016) 142: 1499. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1007/s00432-016-2175-7

3. Firkins, R., Eisfeld, H., Keinki, C. et al. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients in routine care and the risk of interactions. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol (2018) 144: 551.

4. Malone M, Tsai, G. The evidence for herbal and botanical remedies, Part 1. J Family Practice. (2018); 67(1)10-16.

5. Ceuterick, M Vandebroek, I. Identity in medicine cabinet: Discursive positions of Andean migrants towards their use of herbal remedies in the United Kingdom. J Social Science & Medicine. (2017); 43-51.

6. Alraek, T., Boon, H., Fonnebo, V. et al. Reducing the risk of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): Challenges and priorities. European Journal of Integrative Medicine 6 (2014); 404-408.

7. Riberio, RJ, Silestre, C. Hidden Risks of Alternative Medicines: A Case of Boldo-Induced Hepatotoxicity. J of Dietary Supplements. (2017); 14(2):186-189.

8. Eddouks, M., Onakpoya, IJ., Posadzki, P., & Zhang, J. The Safety of Herbal Medicine: From Prejudice to Evidence. Evidence-Based Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (2015) p1-3. Retrieved from http:dx.doi.org/10.1155.2015/316706. Accessed on 18 Nov 2018 .

9. Grollman, AP, Marcus, DM. Global hazards of herbal remedies: lessons from Aristolochia. Science & Society. (2016). Access on 18 Nov 2018.

10. Bonkovsky, HL., Navarro, VJ., et. al. Herbal Products and the Liver: A Review of Adverse Effects and Mechanisms. Gastroenterology (2015); 148(3)517-532.

11. Ekar, T, Kreft, S. Common risks of adulterated and mislabeled herbal preparations. ScienceDirect. Food and Chemical Toxicology (2018); 268-297.

Climate Change Scientific Essay

I need a scientific essay on Climate change

4 pages (1000 words)

MLA Format

Instructions attached

ESSAY Guidelines

I. GOAL

Find new information on your topic of choice. Write a clear, focused, well-organized essay that indicates you thoroughly understand your source material, and topic.

II. ESSAY TOPIC

1. Climate Change

III. WRITING INSTRUCTIONS

Aim for the essay to be ~1000 words long. Slightly longer or shorter essays are OK, but you will lose points if you are off by more than ±25%. Your list of references does not count against the 1000 words. Write your essay in a technical, formal style. Do not use colloquial terms. Use a passive form of 3rd-person voice (i.e. do not use the words “I”, “we”, “you”). Write for another student. Make sure that you introduce/define all the terms/concepts before you actually discuss their effects. For example, you need to describe what greenhouse gasses, albedo, and the global carbon cycle are before you can clearly discuss how the different factors affect global climate change.

What is Scientific Writing?

Scientific writing is a specific type of writing. Scientific writing benefits from structure and planning. Writing is a craft; to do it well takes practice. Some of the tenants of scientific writing you will need to hone include:

· Create an outline before you start writing; outlines encourage organization and conceptual continuity.

· Write clearly and concisely. Use words explicit with your intended meaning.

· Avoid references to self (i.e. don’t use the words I, our, my,…etc.).

· Do not exaggerate or embellish.

· Avoid vague adjectives. For example, when explaining an object’s mass it is unscientific to say it is huge or gigantic. Instead say how massive the object is (i.e. 200,000 metric tons).

· Follow the common format of introduction, body and conclusion.

· Introductions give the reader an overview of the topics to be covered in the body

· The body should develop, enhance and fulfill the concepts which the introduction presented

· Conclusions take information presented in the body and do one of two things with it. If possible, form a comprehensive statement about the inherent relationships of the information in the body. If not, explain the lack of comprehensive meaning within the body.

· The first sentence in every paragraph of your paper should include the thesis for the paragraph. All sentences within the following paragraph should help to support your thesis.

· Sources are to be cited and a bibliography is required. Use the structure reccomended by the American Meterological Society (AMS)

IV. REFERENCES

You must read and cite at least 2 scientific papers in your essay. Scientific papers are peer reviewed and contain a bibliography (list of references at end). You may use textbooks for your scientific references, but NOT the textbook for this class.

Examples of scientific journals are:

· Nature

· Science

· Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences

· Eos

· Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

· Journal of Climate

· Climatic Change

· Geophysical Research Letters

· Scientific American

Include an alphabetical list of references at the end of your essay, structured as recommended by the American Meteorological Society (see also http://ametsoc.org/PUBS/Authorsguide/pdf_vs/briefauthguide.pdf).

· Books: Reference must consist of last name and initials of author(s), year of publication of book, title of book (italicized or underlined), publisher’s name, and total pages.

For example: Wallace, J. M., and P. V. Hobbs, 1977: Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey. Academic Press, 350 pp

· Journal articles: Reference must consist of last name and initials of author(s), year of publication of journal, title of paper, title of journal (italicized or underlined), volume of journal, number of issue (only if required for identification), and first and last page numbers of the paper.

For example: Archer, C. L., and M. Z. Jacobson, 2007: Supplying baseload power and reducing transmissions requirements interconnecting wind farms. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 46, 1701-1717.

You must acknowledge and identify the work done by others in your written text by citing the appropriate paper/book.

Example: As mentioned in Wallace and Hobbs (1977), the weather data in the US …

Quoted material should always be quoted exactly word for word and enclosed in quotation marks, followed by the citation.

Example “Wind is the world’s fastest growing electric energy source” (Archer and Jacobson 2007).

No more than 5% of the text can be direct quotes.

V. RUBRIC

I will use the following rubric to grade your essay.