chemistry article

 
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Fluoride in Water Controversy surrounds the addition of fluoride to drinking water. Professional organizations (i.e. Center for Disease Control, National Health Service, National Academy of Science, and the American Dental Association) say that the proper amount of fluoride in the water can prevent and control tooth decay with no side effects. However, members of your community are fighting with community leaders to remove fluoride from the water. Inspired by Pinellas Country in Florida*, they continue the claim that fluoride has been added to the water supply in an attempt by the government to control the minds of its people. They also claim that the government has manufactured scientific data that shows how fluoride protects teeth from decay and cavities.

You have been asked as scientific members of this community to weigh in on whether or not fluoride protects teeth from acid erosion. To reach as much of the community as possible, you plan to write an article in the local paper to share your findings.

Your goal: using simulated teeth (water buffalo, eggshell or limestone chip) to provide evidence on whether fluoride protects teeth from acid erosion.

Your end product: an article in the local paper that uses your data to support or refute the claim that fluoride protects teeth from decay.

Lab Report (30 points)

Each person turns in their own report! NOT A GROUP PROJECT* To have a complete lab report, you must include ALL of the following:

1. Summary of experiment 2. Reflection 3. Data table 4. Calculations 5. Article for the local paper

Student groups may work on 3 and 4 together; however, the summary, reflection and article MUST be individual work. A complete report must contain ALL 5 sections (even if you worked on them as a group, you must attach your own copy).

Summary of experiment (Typed) The summary is a complete and concise description of your work. It must contain:

• Reason – why do we care about this work? Look to your scenario. Each has given you a bigger picture to use an inspiration for your work. Think about why is this research important.

• Research question – what problem are you solving? This will give the reader a better understanding of the scope of your work.

• Method – what approach did you take to answer the research question? This is a brief summary of your experimental design and the techniques you used. Don’t get bogged down in details, but give the reader a quick summary of what you did.

• Results – What was the answer to your question based on your observations? Describe key observation and include important findings.

• Conclusions/Implications – What is the general implications of your findings? This should reference your scenario and the goal of your experiment. Should fluoride be kept in the water? Can the energy yield of the industrial process be improved? Is there a way to effectively separate the recovered spill mixture?

Other considerations about the summary:

• No more than 400 words. • Be clear and concise. • Assume the reader understands scientific terms and chemistry; therefore, you do not have

to define terms or techniques (ex: suction filtration, acid, etc). • The summary must be typed. Include a word count in parentheses at the end of the

summary. (≤ 400)

Reflection (Typed) Answer the following questions:

1. What did you learn about the scientific process while working on this team project? 2. What did you learn about working as a member of a research team? 3. What is one way that this experience will help you in your future studies, research, or

career?

Data Tables (Typed) Create tables with labels to organize your data and calculated values. Use the tables in the lab packets as guides. The tables should be easily understood and organized.

Calculations (Typed or Handwritten) This section also includes all your calculations. Calculations should be labeled so that the reader can follow your train of thought. If handwritten, it should be neat and legible.

Article for the paper (Typed) One of the most important jobs of a scientist is to convey their findings to others. These communications include: formal publications (i.e. journal articles, technical books, textbooks); presentations at professional meetings (i.e. posters, talks, discussion panels, roundtables); technical reports to granting/funding agencies; and communications with employers. Scientists also speak to the general public. It is important that, when we communicate our findings, we use language that is appropriate for the audience we are addressing. End product: an article in the local paper that uses your data to support or refute the claim that fluoride protects teeth from decay.

• The article should be no more than 2 pages, double spaced. • The article should be written for a general audience and not use technical terms or jargon.

The target audience for this article is interested people with limited chemistry knowledge. o If you use a technical term, you must define it for the audience.

• This article differs from your summary, because it is a less technical communication. o It requires you to think about how to explain a technical experiment to a general

audience. o To help, try explaining your scenario lab to a

parent/sibling/grandparent/relative/friend who doesn’t have experience in general chemistry.

• Your article should include: o Statement: Does your evidence support or refute the claim that fluoride protects

teeth from decay? o Brief description of the chemistry involved with fluoridation of teeth and your

experiment. § How it relates to acid erosion of teeth?

o Brief description of how you carried out your experiment. o Describe key findings of the experiment, numerical and/or observational, that

support your statement. § DO NOT include data tables. § Graphs/charts are allowed as long as they are necessary to support your

statement. o Write a conclusion based on your analysis.

§ Detail how these findings support or refute the claim that fluoride protects teeth from decay.

§ DO Not include personal beliefs

 
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Chemistry Essay

 
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Choose ONE topic to write 5 pages essay include the cover page and reference page. Your paper should be written according to the APA guidelines. Please see link: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/.

Topics to choose from:

  • The chemistry of diet sodas and the effect on bone structure
  • Acid rain in your neighborhood and the effects on plants
  • The power of fluoride in community water
  • Plastics packaging and its effects on food stuffs
  • Turning yeast into a biofuel
  • Using sugar for batteries
  • Organic food vs. Pesticides
  • Chemical signals from medications
  • Chemicals that trigger food allergies
 
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Chemistry Paper

 
"Our Prices Start at $11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!"
   


Choose ONE topic to write 5 pages essay include the cover page and reference page. Your paper should be written according to the APA guidelines. Please see link: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/1/.

Topics to choose from:

  • The chemistry of diet sodas and the effect on bone structure
  • Acid rain in your neighborhood and the effects on plants
  • The power of fluoride in community water
  • Plastics packaging and its effects on food stuffs
  • Turning yeast into a biofuel
  • Using sugar for batteries
  • Organic food vs. Pesticides
  • Chemical signals from medications
  • Chemicals that trigger food allergies
 
"Our Prices Start at $11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!"

BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY

 
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Chemistry can be broadly divided into pure chemistry and applied chemistry

A. PURE CHEMISTRY

     Pure chemistry deals with the attempt to get better understanding of nature.

     Pure chemistry is further divided into three main branches.oraganic 

      chemistry,inorganic chemistry and physical chemistry.These main branches 

      have been further divided into large number of sub-sections.The main branches 

      are described briefly as follows:

1.   Organic chemistry – This branch of chemistry deals with the study of structure,

       chemical composition and characteristics of compounds of carbon and 

       hydrogen elements and their derivatives.

2.    Inorganic chemistry- This branch concerns itself to the study of structure,

        composition and behaviour of the inorganic compounds,i.e the compounds 

        other than hydrocarbons or their derivatives.Such compounds are found in the 

       crust of the earth and constitute non-living matter.

   B.  APPLIED CHEMISTRY

         Applied chemistry deals with the application of the knowledge of chemistry 

         for the benifit of mankind.The different branches of applied chemistry are as 

         under:

 1.      Analytical chemistry- This branch involves collection of techniques which                      

          allows exact determination of the composition of the given sample of 

          material.It has been further divided into two categorie.

   a,  Qualitative analysis – It deals with the identification of various constituent particles (atoms,ions,molecules)present in the material.

   b,    Quantitative analysis-It deals with the estimation of various constituents

   in the material.

2.     Industrial chemistry- This branch deals with the chemistry involved in 

        different industrial processes such as manufacture of various chemical

        substances.

3.     Biochemistry – This branch concerns itself to the study of matabolic pathways 

        and enzymology pertaining to living organisms.It deals with molecular,cellular

        and chemical activities of living organisms.

4.     Geochemistry – This branch deals with the chemical processes occuring on 

        earth such as metamorphism of rocks,formation of petrolium,etc.It also deals

        with the composition of soils and rocks.

5.     Petrochemistry- It  is branch of chemistry which deals with the transformation 

        of crude oil and natural gas into useful products and raw materials.

6.    Radiochemistry -It is branch of chemisrtry which deals with the study of radio

        active materials,both natural as well as man made.It also involves the use of 

       radiactive materials to study the pathways/mechanism of ordinary chemical

       reactions.

7.    Biotechnology- It refers to the technological application which uses biological

       systems,living organisms or their creativities to make or modofy products or

       process for specific use.Biotechnology infact,combines various disciplines like

       genetics,molecular biology,biochemistry,embryology and cell biology for 

       developing for beneficial effects.

8.    Medicinal or pharmaceutical chemistry- It is scientific discipline at the 

        intersection of chemistry and pharmacology which is involved with designing 

        synthesizing and developing phramaceutical drugs.Medicinal chemistry 

       involves the identification,synthesis and development of new chemical entities

       suitable for interdisciplinary science that combines organic chemistry with

       biochemistry,phrmacology,molecular biology,statistics and physical chemistry.

  Environmental chemistry- It is a branch of chemistry which deals with scientific 

        study of chemical and biochemical phenomena that occur in natural places.

        Environmental chemistry is also an interdisciplinary science that includes 

        atmospheric,aquatic,and soil chemistry along with analytical chemistry.

        environmental studies and other areas if science.  

 
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